The Bryan twins, who were seeded No. 1, have now failed to reach the final at any of the last three Grand Slam tournaments - after winning four major titles in a row before that, starting at the 2012 U.S. Open.
Their bid for the first calendar-year Grand Slam in men's doubles since 1951 ended with a semifinal loss at last year's U.S. Open. The Bryans then lost in the third round at the Australian Open in January.
The brothers own a record 15 major doubles championships, including at Roland Garros in 2003 and 2013.